Understanding Tukey’s q & p

For a planned SINGLE comparison, the CI of can be interpreted as , in which . The and should be defined according to the denominator of .

For post hoc multiple comparisons, the CI of can still be interpreted as , wherein indicates the number of sub-groups whose means are compared. Note that qtukey(...) and ptukey(...) is defined with a two-tailed probability while qt(...) and pt(...) with a single-tailed one.

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